Working with Cement and Concrete
This ebook is a concise and clear reference to the most important things you need to know when working with cement to make and use either mortar or concrete. Cement is one of the most important materials for construction and has been for thousands of years. It is used widely in engineering, landscaping, and building construction. If the techniques used are fit for purpose, it will be durable, strong, and very cost effective. If not used properly, the construction may not meet expectations, may begin to degrade, and can even be dangerous. This book can help you make better choices and achieve better results when using cement and concrete.
CONTENTS OF THE EBOOK
CHAPTER 1 APPLICATIONS FOR CEMENT AND CONCRETE
CHAPTER 2 EQUIPMENT, MIXING & SAFETY
Mixing Concrete & Mortar
CHAPTER 3 CEMENT CHEMISTRY
Other Types of Cement
Different Types of Lime
Concrete Additives (Admixtures)
CHAPTER 4 CURING & TESTING
Setting & Curing of Concrete
Strength of Concrete
Assessing The Effectiveness of Concrete Curing
CHAPTER 5 CONCRETING TECHNIQUES
Pouring and Compacting
CHAPTER 6 STRENGTHENING CONCRETE
Reinforcing Concrete Slabs
Other Concrete Strengthening Methods
CHAPTER 7 FINISHING METHODS
Finishing Concrete Slabs
CHAPTER 8 REPAIRING DAMAGED CONCRETE
Examining Damaged Concrete
What Causes Concrete Damage?
Concrete Repair Materials
How to Repair Cracked Concrete
Further reading and study
More eBooks available
How is Concrete Used?
Concrete can be worked with either as precast units or poured 'in situ' (on site). In situ jobs are situations where the concrete is poured and allowed to dry in its final location (e.g., the foundation of a building).
Precast concrete is used in a range of construction situations where it can save time. Examples of precast concrete units include concrete blocks (used in construction), culvers and drainage pipes (used in civil engineering), and paving slabs (used in landscaping).
Concrete is made by mixing cement with a fine aggregate (i.e., sand) and a coarse aggregate (stone or gravel). The percentage of cement in the overall mix typically may vary from around 10% to 25%.
The relative proportion of materials in the mix depends upon the characteristics of materials used; the strength of concrete required, and where it will be used.
Some sands are finer than others, and some coarse aggregates might be larger or cleaner than others. Aggregates available in one area may be a different type of stone to elsewhere. Some aggregate stone may be harder and other stone (e.g., scoria) may be more porous.
There are many ways to use concrete in construction or to make other items. Some of these take a lot of preparation, some take great skills, and often they can take years to completely master. Like all skills, concreting is rewarding when it is done properly. It is worth planning all concreting work thoroughly and understanding how to best tackle the job.
Different methods of finishing concrete can include polishing, painting, adding colour, surface treatments, textures, mosaics, pebbles, or others.